Re-Designing Refugee Communities, Settlement Design, Large Community Site Design

Discussion in 'The big picture' started by Marcus Busby, Sep 19, 2015.

  1. Marcus Busby

    Marcus Busby Junior Member

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    Why this?

    Global population displacement is considered at an all time high (Globally, with one in every 122 humans either a refugee, internally displaced or seeking asylum. UNHCR, 2015), while the average stay for a displaced person in a refugee camp has been estimated at being between 12 to 17 years. Some refugee camp populations exceed the populations of established cities. The fourth largest settlement in Kenya, after the cities of Nairobi, Mombassa and Kisumu is Dadaab, a refugee camp with nearly 330,000 residents, exceeding the population of the largest municipalities of Nakuru (308k) and Eldoref (290k). Funding and other types of resources and support for refugees are also considered to be highly stressed throughout the world. “A Global Challenge Too Big for Governments and NGOs Alone.” Therefore a sustainable and sustaining strategic response is of high importance, locally and globally. This coupled with other environmental, social and economic challenges on a global scale, means “We Need Bold Ideas.”

    The objective is to provide an accessible and workable holistic settlement planning and delivery model, which employs complexity and systems theory as a basis, but avoids complex language and complex modelling, making it easier to implement in the field with available tools. Whilst any modern development must avert challenges caused by over-industrialisation, consumption, resource depletion, climatic change etc., and act as both a “seed” for a new economy and a “reboot” for existing economies – going beyond sustainability, to facilitate rehabilitation and regeneration.

    The three spheres of sustainable development are thoroughly considered, and the 17 UN Sustainable Development Goals may be exemplified using this model, which is verifiable and founded upon an extensive body of sound and peer-reviewed academic scientific publications.

    The aim of this approach is three fold; based upon Caring for the Earth, Caring for People and the restoration of ecosystem services and natural capital as a foundation for socio-economic and environmental stability and resilience, in order to facilitate the ascension of the needs hierarchy (Maslow, 1943 & Koltko-Rivera, 2006) for the realisation of community resilience, economic sustainability, environmental stability and continued community development.

    As the health of the ecological system in and around a settlement improve, the resultant effects are improved human health and well-being and improved prosperity (Sandifer et al. 2015). Integration is realised by providing for both the displaced community, and also the wider community, by generating sustainable and regenerative resource supplies through added value, and restoration agriculture within the included green spaces, increasing skill sets and employment opportunities in the local area through education and training, and generating a surplus of these, thereby contributing positively to local and national resilience.

    Longer term economic impacts can be growth of emergent sectors in technology, transportation, hardware and software, communications, materials science, and energy provisioning. Social impacts can be the existence of the first collaboratively designed settlements in the modern age, embodying the values of democracy and community; unity and diversity, symbolising a common heritage (“Shared Space” vis-a-vis planet Earth) and a “Shared Future.” These ideals manifested by recognising this future represent the unification of understanding, as many cultures and backgrounds converge in realisation of interconnectedness, with each other and Earth as a capable global family.

    Environmental impacts can be the catalysis of transitional growth towards repair of, and symbiosis with the natural capital of the planet for a return of surplus. Employing ecological approaches to landscape management and restoration, as creators of biodiversity and stability, harnessing natural equilibrium, sequestering carbon into the soils and vegetation, proven by example already by many stabilisation and restoration agriculture projects.

    Feelings of displacement, loss, exhaustion, sorrow are somewhat maintained by emergency environments. Planting seeds, tending a garden, growing something and connecting with the earth is hugely symbolic and settling. UNHCR Environmental Demonstration Manuel 2000 states:

    "Field experience demonstrates that programs, which empower refugee populations to develop sustainable farming, housing, and energy producing practices help avoid expensive environmental rehabilitation projects and can produce local employment. Such programs foster feelings of self-worth among traumatized exiles and transform a chaotic settlement into a community that possesses knowledge and skills that will benefit both refugees and environment."

    This method of community and landscape restoration creates collaboration, resources and revenue – bringing stability. It encourages the re-employment of expertise in respective fields. Restoration of natural equilibrium increases return (per calorie) of energy invested, cutting energetic and resource deficits and scarcities responsible for so much global conflict.

    Transferable skills and experience are gained for both displaced persons and also personnel, whilst natural capital and ecosystem service provision increase in the project area, reducing running costs and increasing the number of potential field operatives, allowing for an exponential diffusion of the currently expanding, global population displacement.

    Why support this hypothesis? Expert support, guidance and co-design collaboration is necessary and sought to further develop and, most importantly, demonstrate specifically in a variety of social and geographical landscapes how this model can be applied in UNHCR operations. This model builds upon the systems, processes and infrastructure already in place, with the potential to further improve operational sustainability, efficacy and economic viability; To make valuable resources go further and to increase support for both established, and developing, experience and expertise.

    Employing this model has positive implications for migration, integration, the economy and international relations. It also addresses other major peacetime concerns, such as urban sprawl, slums and poverty, energy transition, future prosperity, resilience to climate change, human development and well-being.

    Creating opportunity, economic returns and growth for the host country, it also equips refugees with the knowledge, connections and skills that will be vital on returning home for post conflict recovery.

    References:

    Koltko-Rivera, M.E. (2006) Rediscovering the Later Version of Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs: Self-Transcendence and Opportunities for Theory, Research and Unification. Review of General PsychologyVol. 10, No. 4, pp302-317. doi: 10.1037/1089-2680.10.4.302 PDF link here academic reference site HERE.

    Maslow, A.H. (1943) A Theory of Human Motivation . Psychological Review, 50, 370-396.

    Sandifer, P.A, Sutton-Grier, A.E. & Ward, B.P (2015) Exploring connections among nature, biodiversity, ecosystem services, and human health and well-being: Opportunities to enhance health and biodiversity conservation. Ecosystem Services12 (2015) pp.1-15. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2212041614001648
    UNHCR (2015) Worldwide displacement hits all-time high as war and persecution increase. Divers/UNHCR, ed. Jonathan Clayton. Online article: http://www.unhcr.org/news/latest/20...s-all-time-high-war-persecution-increase.html
     
    Last edited: Jun 1, 2016
  2. Marcus Busby

    Marcus Busby Junior Member

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    How?

    The attached video shows implementation process and phases. This is described in more detail (at city-scale) in Busby, 2014 pp50-53 and at neighbourhood scale in Busby, 2016, and in an online forum, post #105 and #106 here.



    Marking out can be as simple as using a peg-and-rope technique, creating circles with a 25m radius, used to form a “flower of life” geometric pattern from which the settlement grows. This allows for simple tools and processes to be employed in site planning and marking out.

    In the post-emergency planning phase, it is strongly advised to use Participatory Urban Planning (PUP), see PUP guides MUEC (2015) and Practical Action (2008) to establish how the spaces are to be used.

    The image below (not to scale) shows the building blocks for the urban fabric, with the 19 different “street configurations” and 4 major landscape zones. It may be that in the initial stages, canvases or tents are marked with one of the 6 colour codes to allow for easy recognition for function and navigability.

    [​IMG]
    https://www.flickr.com/photos/marcusbusby/27262604392/sizes/m/

    Online knowledgebases such as http://knowledgebase.permaculture.org.uk and http://answers.practicalaction.org and http://resources.cawst.org/ provide videos and documentation for workshops and training relating to around 200 different practical solution subjects, from how to make compost toilets and rainwater harvesting, to slow sand filters, lime plasters and organising group meetings.

    For the Green spaces the Commonland Foundation “4 Returns and 3 Zones” model (Brasser & Ferwenda et al. 2015) can be employed. This model is based upon the successes of the World Bank Loess Valley Watershed Restoration Project (World Bank, 2003). More detail can be added by using examples such as The Methodology of Ferme du Bec Halloiun, Normandy France (Hervé-Gruyer & Hervé-Gruyer, 2011 and Guégan & 2015).

    Buildings and built space follow a temporal progression. Starting with temporary shelters, such as the MoreThanShelters Domo, which provides a sound canvas covered aluminium structure, which can later be modified into more permanent dwellings. More permanent and low cost, low impact buildings such as sand bag and straw bale housing can be the next step, followed by buildings constructed from natural materials such as Hempcrete and timber frames as the plantations begin producing the materials.

    Infrastructure, in the form of transit routes begin as tracks and paths, for pedestrian, cycles and animal-led transport. This allocation of space using the GCoT model allows for later phases of public transport systems to be installed. The idea is that the settlement goes through a series of successive phases, depending upon how long it is established. Energy infrastructure commences with localised production from renewables, with community salt water battery storage. For buildings and operations with large energy requirements micro-turbines can be employed. Energy provision again, follows a temporal successive development strategy. Waste water and faecal outputs can be directed into constructed WET systems (see www.biologicdesign.co.uk for examples), a series of humanure and composting processes. And also standard response techniques, dependent upon site-specific criteria.

    Complexity is employed as a Methodology, to create mixed-use diversity with systemic unity achieved through spatial planning for optimality. A temporary to permanent temporal strategy creates a life cycle akin to organic settlements, initiating employment and opportunity. Using these approaches allows many smaller decisions to act in synergy resulting in the emergence of an intentional community.

    Socially, a shared vision, “goal” or process brings cohesion, community roles and solidarity. Environmentally there is a restoration and renaissance ethic toward cultivating a productive landscape that is agriculturally productive and biologically diverse. Economically, this results in an increase in ecosystems services, providing tangible materials to supply growth and future prosperity for a post-industrial economy.

    As a master-planning tool, it can attend with the real possibilities opened at the attained level of intellectual and material culture, resources and capabilities. It offers the prospect of preserving and improving the productive achievements of civilisation, offering a greater chance for the pacification of existence within the framework of institutions which offer the greater chance for the free development of human needs and faculties.

    This approach conveys a holistic sense of perspective regarding current social, economic and environmental challenges. It entails an ecological ethic coupled with a self-realisation ethic, in that participants have direct access to resources and services enabling satisfaction of material and psychological needs within an ecologically balanced environment.

    The model fosters a balancing and coordination of satisfactions along many dimensions rather than maximising concerns along one narrowly defined dimension (e.g. economic), and the spatial design allows for experimentation; it is open ended and evolutionary whilst being modular, allowing stage by stage completion, local stewardship and future growth without detriment to the established whole.

    The nature of the design pattern allows for multiple projects to run simultaneously – to follow a non-linear, but organised growth pattern, as found in a biological organism, often described as the process of 'emergence'.

    cont...
     
    Last edited: May 31, 2016
  3. Marcus Busby

    Marcus Busby Junior Member

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    cont...


    Land use in and around the settlement is defined by patch zoning. In total there are 13 different types of land use. Six types for built spaces, and six types for green spaces within the settlement, with an additional type, being the surrounding lands.

    Land use types are arranged into Zones, briefly defined as:

    Zone 0 Buildings and homes, transit orientated and mixed-use structures, with “home gardens”

    Zone 1 Community Gardens, and allotments “localised food production” plant nurseries

    Zone 2 Market Gardens, commercial orchards, poly tunnels, small livestock, tree and plant nurseries “commercial food production”

    Zone 3 Farm-scale production, agroecology, orchards, herd animals, apiculture, main crops

    Zone 4 Large-scale Agriculture/Agroforestry materials and energy crops

    Zone 5 Wilderness/non-associated/natural environment

    Employment opportunities and entrepreneurial skills exist within every community. For Transit-orientated, mixed used zoning, general socio-economic and cultural activities are generalised into categories, ranging from very localised to global markets; provisions are made for all levels of market operation. An embedded commercial supply system, also used for waste removal; mirroring the veins in a leaf or flower, drawing resources from the land into the productive areas of the settlement, enable settlement-wide availability and distribution/export for materials and goods, facilitating home-working operations and a modern cottage industry, forming micro-local-economic foundation for rich culture and continued temporal development accordant with Kondratiev cycles, which can be reiterated and continued, ensuring sound economic autonomy and strategic temporal development by succession towards realising a green-blue-circular economy of proximity for the post-industrial future.

    A prototype settlement can be computer-modelled before going operational and assessed by experienced professionals. An appropriate scale for this can be a test-bed for around 340 people. This can involve modelling a settlement comprised of 49 MoreThanShelters Domo shelters. The evolution of this camp can be modelled, including long-term effects.

    Due to the adaptability of the model it depends upon specific criteria as to how it is employed. The full benefits of the model may not be comparable until it supports a population exceeding around 2,400 persons – comparable to an established village.

    This Smart Garden City approach was designed specifically for scaling – hence the spatial design is based upon recursion and fractal geometry - potentially infinite in nature. Modularity facilitates planning and expansion by allowing spatial extensions to be budgeted long-before implementation. The materials and quantities for implementation can be standardised; facilitating costs-forecasting and materials sourcing.

    Interest and sustainability is achieved through maintaining a festival mentality. A mentality of celebration – celebrating the productive achievements of humanity in combining the arts and sciences.

    Planning and construction undertaken with professionalism and dedication, complimented by a celebratory atmosphere, maintained by entertainments, group activities and participatory projects; creating social life and cohesion found in successful settlements – restaurants, cafes, music and theatre, childrens' activities and events. Many examples exist in places which have received refugees, often by refugees themselves.

    The build objectives, defined by participatory urban planning processes, familiarise people with collaborative processes and construction undertaken through a series of workshops and demonstrations, training people on-the-job.

    Celebration is integral to festivals and can share many properties with renewed approaches to integration. Festivals and emergency settlements share many other properties also, such as the coming together of many people from diverse backgrounds in extraordinary circumstances, the provision of food, water and sanitation for a large influx of people. Some of he similarities are discussed in the online forum, post #1 found at http://bit.ly/RefForum .



    References

    Brasser, A. & Ferwenda, W., with de Man, Schut, Brouwer, Joosse, Noome, ten Brink & Augenstein (2015) 4 Returns from Landscape Restoration: A systemic and practical approach to restor degraded landscapes. Version 1.0, Commonland Foundation. Commonland Publication. www.commonland.com Accessed 10/10/15.

    Busby, M. (2014) A Garden City of Today v2.0. Published online available here: http://bit.ly/GCoT20

    Busby, M. (2016) The GCoT Model – A Complex Systems Model for Spatio-temporal Settlement Design, Planning and Adaptation. Published online available here: http://bit.ly/LitRevGCoT

    Guégan S.& Léger, F. (2015) Maraîchaige biologique permaculturel et performance économique – Rapport final de l'étude. Institute Sylva, AgroParisTech, UMR SADAPT. Available from www.fermedubec.com

    Hervé-Gruyer, C & Hervé-Gruyer, P (2011) Maraîchaige biologique diversifié et arboriculture. La méthode de la Ferme du Bec Hallouin. Available from www.fermedubec.com Accessed 10/03/2015 English version available here: http://permaculturenews.org/2015/10/15/diversified-organic-market-gardening-and-arboriculture/

    MUEC Montreal Urban Ecology Centre (2015) PARTICIPATORY URBAN PLANNING – Planning the city with and for its citizens. ISBN 978-2-924108-13-0. Published by MUEC available online.

    Practical Action (2008) Participatory Urban Planning Toolkit Based On The Kitale Experience: A Guide to Community-Based Planning for Effective Infrastructure and Services Delivery by Matthew Okello, Isaak Oenenga & Paul Chege. Published by Practical Action. Available online.

    World Bank (2003) China – Loess Plateau Watershed Rehabilitation Project Phase 1. Accessed 15/4/15. http://www.worldbank.org/en/news/fe...hinas-loess-plateau?cid=EXT_WBSocialShare_EXT
     
    Last edited: Jun 1, 2016
  4. Marcus Busby

    Marcus Busby Junior Member

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    Who?

    Very brief listing... to be further developed. More organisations/links etc. are listed on the knowledgebase.permaculture.org.uk website

    N.B. None of the persons/organisations listed below have been officially contacted.


    UNHCR and IKEA Foundation

    UNHabitat, UNEP, UNCCD, etc.


    Practical Action http://practicalaction.org/

    Ashoka Community etc. www.ashoka.org


    Kilian Kleinschmidt www.switxboard.org AUSTRIA and www.refugeecities.org USA


    Geoff Lawton; Rhamis Kent www.permacultureconsultants.com AUSTRALIA

    Dr. John D Liu; Willhem Ferweda www.commonland.com NETHERLANDS


    Urban Planning and Design

    UNHCR, UNHabitat

    Professor Michael Batty CASA/Bartlett School of Planning/UCL, UNITED KINGDOM / MIT USA.

    Professor Pierre Frankhauser ThéMA, FRANCE)

    Professor Nikos Salingaros P4P Urbanism, International Society for Biourbanism, University of Texas in SA USA

    Professor Massimo Tadi IMM Design Lab, ABC University Politecnico di Milano, ITALY


    Ecosystem Services

    Scientists and Organisations listed in Sandifer et al. 2015. e.g. www.noaa.gov USA Plus others...


    Water and Sanitation

    CAWST / Centre for Affordable Water and Sanitation Technology www.cawst.org CANADA

    SamSam Water Foundation www.samsamwater.com NETHERLANDS

    IRC www.ircwash.org NETHERLNDS

    Creating Water Foundation http://creatingwater.nl NETHERLANDS

    WARKA Water http://www.warkawater.org ITALY

    Jay Abrahams www.biologicdesign.co.uk UNITED KINGDOM
    Joseph C. Jenkins http://humanurehandbook.com/about.html USA


    Food, Agriculture and Forestry

    FAO etc.
    Geoff Lawton & Rhamis Kent et al. www.permacultureconsultants.com AUSTRALIA

    John D. Liu & Willhem www.commonland.com NETHERLANDS, CHINA, USA


    Shelter, Architecture and Engineering

    MoreThanShelters / Daniel Kerber www.morethanshelters.org GERMANY

    Jae Sabol / replicable city centre design / http://www.onecommunityglobal.org/ USA

    Mr Teun van Sambeek www.peace-factory.orgNETHERLANDS (adapt concept for naturally, locally sourced Hempcrete)

    Michael Reynolds et al. www.earthship.com USA

    Mazlin Ghazali – Honeycomb housing http://tessellarhoneycomb.blogspot.de/ MALAYSIA

    Architecture Sans Frontières International http://www.asfint.org/ FRANCE

    Engineers Without Borders http://www.ingenieure-ohne-grenzen.org/ GERMANY


    Energy Generation and Storage

    Aquion Energy – Scalable (Home-Grid) Saltwater Battery Storage www.aquionenergy.com USA

    Capstone Turbine – High electricity output micro-turbines, runs on Biogas/Methane www.capstoneturbine.com USA

    Earthship Biotecture / long-life, wide-range vertical axis turbine www.earthship.com/vertical-axis-wind-power-generation-prototype USA

    Other Renewable Energy Specialists, solar, hydro, geothermal etc.


    People and Community Structures

    Rosemary Morrow www.bluemountainspermacultureinstitute.com.au/about-us AUSTRALIA

    Julia Bachler www.usepotential.com GERMANY

    Other social innovators – e.g. see Ashoka Lists here.

    Plus the entrants and designs resulting from UNHCR IKEA Foundation WDCD 2016 Refugee Challenge.


    Where?

    Sites that have been selected for refugee camps, formal / informal. Any suitable site, anywhere in the world. Existing refugee camps, and slums that can benefit from adaptation and amelioration.

    Locations with high populations of displaced persons, e.g. areas of Kenya, Somalia, Jordan and Levant, Afghanistan etc. Post-Conflict zones where native population is returning / rebuilding.
     
    Last edited: May 22, 2016
  5. 9anda1f

    9anda1f Administrator Staff Member

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  6. Marcus Busby

    Marcus Busby Junior Member

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    Dear Bill, (and Livingstone)

    Bill, Thank you so much for your support throughout this process, it has really helped and your support has come just at the right time.

    To anybody who may be following/reading please accept my apologies for an enormous monlogue!

    I hope there may be some benefit in the words and images above, and especially that the links to other people's and organisations' work and projects may have helped spread a bit of know-how, raise coverage and link people/projects, even if it is just one connection this is one more.

    I see that there have been just over 6,000 views so permit myself to speak as if there may be other readers too.

    I particularly have been meaning to reply to "Livingstone" to say bless you and to thank you for sharing your inspiration with us.

     
    Last edited: Jun 1, 2016
  7. Marcus Busby

    Marcus Busby Junior Member

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    Thank you Bill for sharing this article. Dadaab refugee camp is the largest refugee camp in the world with nearly 330,00 residents. It is the fourth largest settlement in Kenya, after the three largest cities and exceeds the populations of the largest municipalities.

    Please read the article Bill posted, link here: http://www.standardmedia.co.ke/business/article/2000202628/the-sad-economics-of-refugee-camps

    Please see the post from Teun van Sambeek in the Diem25 forum post #38 https://www.diem25.org/forum/viewtopic.php?f=37&t=100&start=30#p8465

    I replied briefly, in post #46 https://www.diem25.org/forum/viewtopic.php?f=37&t=100&start=40#p9579

    This kind of model can work really well, for rapid establishment of a built environment, but I feel would benefit from using different materials if the structural qualities permit and I would like to read more about how environmental psychology has been considered in the design of the buildings, baring in mind that the recipients of such a project are likely currently living in slums, which are often very cramped and overpopulated tin shacks.

    I feel the model can be improved by employing low carbon building methods, and materials. This is kind of similar to how I envisaged the Zone 4 plantations and processing centres functioning in the GCoT model, receiving raw materials from industrial hemp and timber plantations to supply building materials such as blocks and hempcrete, structural timbers and so forth.



    UN Humanitarian Summit, Istanbul

    "The first World Humanitarian Summit was convened in Istanbul in an attempt to tackle what the United Nations has described as the worst humanitarian crisis since World War II. An estimated 125 million people worldwide require humanitarian assistance, among them 60 million displaced from their homes by conflict, natural disasters and climate change.

    The two-day gathering was conceived four years ago by U.N. Secretary General Ban Ki-moon. In preparation, 23,000 people were consulted in over 150 countries, according to U.N. officials. "We are here to shape a different future," said Ban at the opening of the summit. "Let us resolve ourselves here and now not only to keep people alive but to give people a chance at life in dignity."

    Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdogan expressed hope that the summit will prove a "turning point" and encouraged more countries to share the burden of emergency response. Turkey is home to more than 3 million refugees, making it the world's largest host of displaced people."

    SOURCE: https://www.mail.com/int/news/europ...-amid-refugee-rights.html#.1272-stage-hero1-3
     
  8. Marcus Busby

    Marcus Busby Junior Member

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    SOURCE: http://www.commonland.com/en/library "Commonland publication / 4 returns from landdscape restoration"

    4 Returns From Landscape Restoration - A Systemic and Practical Approach to Restore Degraded Landscapes


    "Restoring and conserving ecosystem functionailty forms the core of the global economy and is one of the most important issues to be addressed in the 21st century." p.18

    SUMMARY


    Why is it so important to restore degraded landscapes? It’s actually very simple. We rely on healthy ecosystems to provide us with our food, water, clean air, climate stability, social and economic wealth; even our happiness and well-being. We only have to look at history to see the devastating consequences of not valuing or understanding ecosystems: whole civilizations have vanished after over-exploiting their natural resources.

    Fortunately however, there are also civilizations who have learned to develop a symbiotic relationship with nature – and thrived – by restoring instead of destroying. Rapid global population growth in the last two centuries has caused the depletion of one quarter of the land surface on Earth as its natural resources have been used to support the unprecedented demand for sustaining human life and advances in technology. However, the scale and speed at which change has been inflicted on the environment since the 1950s is the most profound in the history of humankind; a phenomenon leading scientists call the Great Acceleration.

    Many of the services nature provides humankind – so-called ecosystem services – are free of charge and therefore form no part of our current economy that is based on manufactured capital. This comes at the price of: the massive loss of biodiversity, soil erosion and degraded landscapes. As shown historically, human life depends on ecosystems services. As business and ecosystems are inextricably linked, landscape conservation and restoration should be key to our economy. Yet interventions to date focus only on impact reduction. It’s time for a new approach.

    Slowly but surely the world’s leaders are beginning to realize that restoring ecosystem functions restores the economy. In fact, restoration is vital to reversing the depletion of natural capital: an approach that has thus far been underutilized and underfunded. However, we urgently need the power of the private sector in order to scale-up and accelerate landscape restoration. We need new business models and operations, and a shift to long-term thinking if this industry is to become a viable investment proposition.
    The science is in place, the technology available, and financial resources accessible: the time is ripe to create a landscape restoration industry. But for it to succeed, there must be greater involvement by business and investors, an orchestrator for all the different stakeholders – and a realistic long-term approach. Commonland aims to build trust and connections, create engagement, and keep key partners inspired to harvest the results of their investments over the long-term.

    (page 5)

    SOURCE: http://www.commonland.com/_doc/Commonlandpublication2015_1821500594.pdf
     
  9. Marcus Busby

    Marcus Busby Junior Member

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  10. Marcus Busby

    Marcus Busby Junior Member

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    Links:

    What is it? see post #140
    Why this? see post #141
    How? see post #142 and #143
    Who? see post #144
    Where? also post #144


    Summary presented for #diogochallenge, (Named in memory of Diogo Vasconcelos) - the European Social Innovation Competition, see post #115

    Summary presented for #WDCD UNHCR and Ikea foundation What Design Can Do Competition, see post #139

    Image Gallery: http://bit.ly/GCoTpics

    GCoT Model Literature review and v2.2 : http://bit.ly/LitRevGCoT

    Garden City of Today (GCoT) Version 2.0 booklet: http://bit.ly/GCoT20


    Twitter: www.twitter.com/fractalcities
     
    Last edited: Jun 6, 2016
  11. Marcus Busby

    Marcus Busby Junior Member

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    Article source: https://www.quora.com/Why-does-Aust...reas-in-a-similar-manner-to-Middle-Easterners

    Seeing as this is an Australian website...

    Question directed at:

    http://www.johnholland.com.au/
    http://permacultureconsultants.com/
    http://www.commonland.com/en

    Why does Australia not do more to inhabit its desert areas, in a similar manner to Middle Easterners?
    I often hear the argument that vast areas of Australia are too inhabitable for humans. But surely Australians should be able to develop this area for human habitation in a similar manner to the Middle East?

    If anything, this should be a scientific and R&D project for Australia. Coupled with research into alievating poverty and population growth in poorer countries, it could also work as a method of humanitarian aid for places in Asia.

    6 Answers

    [​IMG]
    Robert Russell
    , lived here all my life, taken care to read and study it as well
    1k Views • Robert has 90+ answers in Australia

    The main question here is, why does Australia not do more to inhabit its desert areas, in a similar manner to Middle Easterners?

    Well first of all, it has already been done. Australia's indigenous Aboriginal people lived right across the country for possibly 50,000 years or more. However Central Australia, not surprisingly, is a harsh environment that could only sustain a very low population density.

    Sustainability matters, then and now.

    Whilst modern Australia supports a much higher overall population, the highest current population densities are largely in the same locations as those the indigenous peoples found attractive: the coast and along the more permanent rivers.

    The reasoning is much the same.
    • Generally people prefer to live easily rather than hard
    • They will choose a moderate rather than an extreme climate
    • And they prefer to live in proximity to reliable, easy to obtain resources rather than more unreliable, harder-to-eke-out essentials like food and water
    • They also like to travel easily, along waterways or along the coast is ideal
    • Long inland road trips across arid regions without pretty frequent and well supplied lay-overs are not so well regarded. Unless they have very good reasons for doing otherwise, of course.
    People generally need strong incentives to live in and travel across a desert, let alone live there.

    But incentives cost money. And yes, we've tried. Regional growth centres were once all the rage, and not actually in the desert areas. But it never really works, not at the scale we'd like.

    Now you may ask well why then do people in the Middle East choose to live in or near deserts? Well history has a big say in that. It was called the Fertile Crescent for a reason. And whilst it may not be as wet as or forested as it used to be, it's not all desert, either. There are bodies of water all around, both seas and rivers that penetrate the land. There are mountains to collect moisture, too. And it's a trading crossroads, a waypoint from east to west. It's strategic. It was on the famed Silk Road. They still have the Suez Canal.

    And they have oil. Lots of oil.

    It's not Australia, all alone waaaay down south. Not quite Asia, and no land bridges to neighbours either. A bit quirky in so many ways. Not strategic at all, unless you plan to invade New Zealand.


    Now deserts are inhospitable areas, and in Australia's case they are remote places far from established cities. By far I mean typically thousands of kilometres away. These are isolated locations. And Australia itself is isolated.

    Why compound our existing feeling of being on the other side of the world by living as far from the coast as we can get?

    Nice place to visit, sure, but would you want to live there?

    We only do that sort of thing when we can make money out of it, as with remote mining operations. And even then most people are flown in and out rather than actually live on site.

    It's the middle of nowhere. It's hot and dry. It's flat and featureless. Yes, many people love the wildness of it all, and some have a tribal connection to the land. But most don't want to stay there forever. How would forcing people to live in a vast, ancient desert alleviate poverty or allow for the world's population growth? Let alone sustain itself with jobs and infrastructure.

    We could do it, yes.

    Current technology will do it. But if we divert seasonal rainfall from the far north, for example, we are not only building massive pipelines, storage tanks and channels across thousands of kilometres of fragile desert ecosystem, we are disrupting and risk destroying the ecological balance of northern Australia, which is adapted to and expects that seasonal fresh water flow.

    Fisheries could collapse, for starters. More species will vanish. We've already lost a lot with our modern-day clumsiness and lack of foresight.

    And Australia's deserts are typically massive, eroded regions of ancient salty sea bed topped by thin soil with a crust on top, a crust that when broken releases red powdery dust into the air, to be dropped haphazardly thousands of kilometres away, most likely in the far distant sea.

    Australia's arid heart is not Nile River farmland just waiting to be watered. It's not ringed by mountains that collect moisture from the Mediterranean and send it down rivers to rich alluvial plains. There's nothing in Australia quite like the Tigris and Euphrates system, no Jordan Valley either. The land is dead-flat. Sunbaked. Old. Harsh.

    OK, we have the Murray-Darling. It's not the same. Sorry.

    There's no Suez Canal. No Red Sea. No Black Sea. No Arabian Sea or Persian Gulf. Transport is a long and hard road trip. Or expensive air travel. And there are no big city markets nearby. No Cairo or Istanbul or even a Europe or Africa just on our doorstep. Let alone India just around the corner.

    This is Central Australia, not the Fertile Crescent, cradle of civilisation, crossroads of ancient trade routes.

    In Australia we call it back of beyond. When we fly to Alice Springs from Sydney the green coastal fringe disappears inside of half an hour, replaced by increasingly browner, flatter and drier land. The brown turns to redder hues fringed by white salt. The Darling River snakes its almost-empty way through this baked-dry land of parched earth and scarce water. And then the salt pans turn into dry salt lakes. It gets worse. It's harsh country.

    There are deserts in many other places, other countries. Why are they largely uninhabited? Why do people choose instead to live on the coast where there are easier pickings of seafood and good, sustainable farmlands with reliable water supplies? Are they mad, or just inconsiderate?

    Why not ask your question of other low-population-density countries and territories? What of Russia, more than twice larger by area than Australia? Or similarly-empty Antarctica? Or Canada?

    Indeed history and geography tells us that people tend to cluster on the coast, they follow rivers and geological fault lines. They gather in greater number on better soils around volcanoes on the edges of tectonic plates.

    The Middle East sits on the relatively small Arabian plate, jammed in there, sandwiched by the Indian, African and Eurasian plates. It's geologically active. It shakes. It's alive. It's the unseen, underlying force of destruction and and reconstruction that has driven the development of human civilisation for the last 10,000 years or so.

    Australia, by contrast, sits slap-bang in the middle of a huge, old, eroded and very stable plate. It's a great place to live if you understand how to live there, but it's not the Middle East.

    Of course there's a lot more, but here's the nub of it: the history and geography are completely different. The only overlap here is the word "desert". Yet even the deserts are very different. Why should the task, the opportunities or the solutions be similar, or even comparable?

    So why spend money on a risky venture that may wreck the joint, when
    we are having enough trouble just keeping a lid on soil degradation, drought, flood, bushfire and loss of unique species diversity even now, with a population of just 23 million?

    Almost the same number live in Cairo alone....

    Continued on website here:
    https://www.quora.com/Why-does-Aust...reas-in-a-similar-manner-to-Middle-Easterners
     
  12. Marcus Busby

    Marcus Busby Junior Member

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    SOURCE: http://www.filmsforaction.org/watch/hope-in-a-changing-climate/

    Hope in a Changing Climate (2009)


    Hope in a Changing Climate optimistically reframes the debate on global warming. Illustrating that large, decimated eco-systems can be restored, the BBC World documentary reveals success stories from Ethiopia, Rwanda and China which prove that bringing large areas back from environmental ruin is possible, and key to stabilising the earth’s climate, eradicating poverty and making sustainable agriculture a reality.

    This approach has been dramatically proven on the Loess Plateau in China, the highland area spanning some 640,000 square km in north central China. It is the birthplace of the Han Chinese, headwaters of The Yellow River and home to a new environmental and economic paradigm: A degraded ecosystem of more than 35,000 square km of land now teems with life and supports the sustainable economic, social and agricultural activities of its people.

    "Hope in a Changing Climate" is the latest documentary produced by the Environmental Education Media Project (EEMP), an organization dedicated to placing ecosystem restoration at the center of the global discussions on climate change, poverty and sustainable agriculture.



    "I am rarely truly amazed by a video any more. That is unfortunate, but it is also all the more remarkable when it does happen. Hope in a Changing Climate amazed me. Regardless of your perspective on why the climate is changing (human created carbon damage, normal earth cycles, etc.), the Earth's climate is changing. This video ignores the controversial aspects of climate change (or global warming/global cooling/global weirding/or whatever they want to call it now...), and shows that there is a real economic, as well as environmental, conservational, agricultural, and societal reason to reverse the damage that has been done to the land. This video shows that there are whole countries working on this, not just some hippies who don't know when to bathe. This video shows that repairing the land to produce viable sustainable and restorative ecosystems that benefit humans and the natural world (this is Permaculture!) can work on a very, very large scale. Inspiring and truly amazing!" - TCPermaculture


    Explore by Subject
    EnvironmentPermacultureSolutionsClimate Change
     
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  13. Marcus Busby

    Marcus Busby Junior Member

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    "...a Gold Standard native reforestation program in Western Australia. Austral will plant around 190,000 trees annually to offset their 27,000t of greenhouse gas emissions, which were calculated, audited and certified under the Australian Government Carbon Neutral Program."

    QUOTE SOURCE : http://www.australfisheries.com.au/2016/06/10/fish-do-grow-on-trees/

    Further contacts:


    Carbon Neutral Pty Ltd: Yarra Yarra Biodiversity Corridor Tree Planting Project

    Dr Ray Wilson, CEO

    Mobile +61 423 519 006 (GMT +8 hours)


    Gold Standard Foundation

    Australian Government Carbon Neutral Program and National Carbon Offset Standard


    CONTACTS SOURCE: http://www.australfisheries.com.au/2016/03/11/australs-cn-fish-carbon-neutral-fish/
     
  14. Marcus Busby

    Marcus Busby Junior Member

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    Comments on the What Design Can Do #WDCD #wdcd2016 #refugeechallenge "Smart Garden City - alternative refugee camp design" proposal page:

    Thank you to Architect Esther Prawira and Permaculturist William Kearns for you kind comments and questions.

    Comments

    • William Kearns
      Excellent wholistic approach to understanding the problems facing refugees and providing integrated solutions that foster interdependence and community.
    • [​IMG]
      Marcus Busby

      Dear William,

      Thank you for highlighting some essential criteria for a wholistic approach. I too believe that creating examples which foster interdependence and community creates interest within the wider community, and with this positive interest or intrigue, integration and collaboration is fostered as observers will wish to become involved too.

      All the best and every success

      Marcus


    • [​IMG]
      Esther Prawira

      Hi Marcus,

      You have such a great idea and what a lovely pattern. I really like how you make the design approach. I can see the similarity with my design, I think it's because you use a same hexagonal shape on your design, that's why i can see that somehow your idea can fit on mine, the different is I focussed on the small structures, because I think it's more practical and essential.

    • [​IMG]
      Marcus Busby

      Hi Esther,

      Thank you for your comments. Each of the hexagons in the idealised spatial plan represents about 1600m2. I calculated initially to house an average of 7 persons per "Hex." This gives a population density of around 4000 persons per km2 for the built space.

      There are 7 different built space landuse classifications, which combine and overlap to enable mixed-use developments, intended to be transit-orientated by being within a 400m walk to the nearest travel node. This applies at all the scales, whether a street, neigghbourhood, district, vale or city.

      There are an additional 7 classifications for included greenspace landuse. The greenspace is important for many reasons; providing walkable jobs, ecosystem services and health benefits to name the most important. The green spaces generate natural capital via ecosystem services which is the foundation of every economy on the planet. As an example, many of the building products can be grown in the included and associated greenspaces as well as energy crops. And also food of course!

      Your modular hexagonal building designs are ideal for this type of spatial configuration, what I also like is the fact that due to the adaptability of your design, there is huge scope for the creation of uniqueness of place.

      All the best and good luck

      Marcus


    • [​IMG]
      Esther Prawira

      ah, now i see why my modular structure is really fit into it.

      This is really cool, hopefully that we can make this happen for real!

      By the way why u create it in only circular pattern? or is it still possible to make it more organic in massing compotition? because i found that with the hexagonal pattern we actually can create a lot of possibilities depends on how big the area we have.
     
    Last edited: Jun 16, 2016
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  15. Marcus Busby

    Marcus Busby Junior Member

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    • Continued....

    • [​IMG]
      Marcus Busby

    • The spatial model is presented in optimium, as a diagram only - in the same way that Ebnezer Howard presented the original Garden City - Group of Garden Cities Model.

      Because it is totally modular, it would be adapted to existing site characteristics, and may benefit from being more organic. The fractal pattern reflects what we know about urban complexity / ie that all cities are fractals, and the geometric form really is an easier way to draw it at this scale, it is useful for making calculations in the planning stage, and finally, if it were to be realised in this six point geometry, we can say that the transit routes are most optimal / being the most direct and interconnected that is mathematically possible.

      There are other reasons for the form which is presented, also to do with mathematics and ecological functionality.

      But to answer your question, yes, it can take any form, it can even form a linear pattern if that were considered most appropriate.

      I feel the benefits of combining urban and green spaces in this manner is, essential / forming holistic urban systems.. all cities depend upon green space - for agriculture, fuel, timber etc. Yet often these resources are miles away, resulting in Carbon emissions from transport. This city creates an economy of proximity, eliminating unecessary transport costs, whilst increasing carbon sequestration through intensified and integrated agroecological and aboricultural approaches within the settlement and its periphery.

      This creates jobs, resources and also many ecological benefits such as increased biodiversity and cleaner air, increased resilience to climate change and so on..!

      Yes I agree with you, the adaptability and diversity of form and function using hexagonal modules is much greater than it would be using standard grid or block systems.


    • [​IMG]
      Esther Prawira

      I see. I think in order to create the best massing composition of the solid and void in the new city we still have to look on the existing sites and infrastructure. Will it be possible if the diagram above re-linked or adaptable with the existing city? I think it will become a huge advantage for the recipient country, because with this diagram we can not only improving the living of the refugees but the locals too.

      I also agree with u that green spaces must be combine with the urban system or I may say bound in order to form a holistic urban system. The open space and the green space actually also working to create human interactions which I believe it is very important for psychological healing of the trauma that stick with them from their origin country.


    • [​IMG]
      Marcus Busby
      Hi Esther, Thanks for your questions,

      I also agree very much with your assertions and have shared some links below which I hope support these.

      "Will it be possible if the diagram above re-linked or adaptable with the existing city?"

      Yes this can be an urban extension, or infill, to an existing settlement, but I think it would be best as an urban extension in the periphery.

      The diagram is a visul aid to support the theory. As an urban extension, by employing principles of fractal geometry, which is a recognised pattern within urban morphology, I believe the Smart Garden City model can mitigate urban sprawl. This mitigation will be improved by employing 'Hive for New Life' architectural approach, which can increase densities, but maintain ecological functionality through vegetative cover with green roofs, walls and terraces.

      "I think it will become a huge advantage for the recipient country, because with this diagram we can not only improving the living of the refugees but the locals too."

      Improving ecosystem service provision and natural capital in an area has positive effects for both the refugees and the locals as the environment is healthier and more stable and there are more resources to share. A great example of large-scale landscape restoration is the Loess Valley Watershed restoration project by World Bank and EEMPC.

      Regarding a Smart Garden City type development, I believe urban extensions of this type may also act as innovation districts to assist in the amelioration or "transition" of existing settlements. The proposed greenspace land-use can result in ecological restoration, improved ecosystem service supply, and an increase in natural capital which can fuel economic development and transition for climatic resilience. This brings with it huge health benefits derived from healthy environment and better access to resources and decent, walkable employment.

      "green space actually also working to create human interactions which I believe it is very important for psychological healing of the trauma that stick with them from their origin country."

      This is a very good point and very important. And can help with the integration and bonding between communities. Gardening and working with the land is a human activity that goes beyond racial, age and cultural boundaries.

      There are some recent studies to support the health benefits of interacting with nature. The most comprehensive study to-date, I believe is by Sandifer et al. 2015.

      I also collated some other studies on this knowledgebase page for Built Environment (see the books section), and also on the health benefits for interaction with green spaces on this page. Studies such as these inform what is sometimes referred to as Biophilic Design. There is a movement based around this thinking.

      It is also quoted in the UNHCR Environmental Demonstrations Manuel 2000:


      "Field experience demonstrates that programs, which empower refugee populations to develop sustainable farming, housing, and energy-producing practices help avoid expensive environmental rehabilitation projects and can produce local employment. Such programs foster feelings of self-worth among traumatized exiles and transform a chaotic settlement into a community that possesses knowledge and skills that will benefit both refugees and environment."


      I was excited to read about recent projects in Kenya guided by UNHCRInnovation UNHabitat and UNHCRKenya for Masterplanning new refugee settlements.

      A tweet today by @UNHCR_Kenya:

      https://twitter.com/UNHCR_Kenya/status/742605312700645376


      And a recent competition:

      http://unhabitat.org/un-habitat-to-announce-winner-of-student-design-competition-for-kenyas-towns/


      Thank you again Esther for raising these points.

      Kind regards, Marcus
     
    Last edited: Jun 16, 2016
  16. Marcus Busby

    Marcus Busby Junior Member

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    Comments on the What Design Can Do #WDCD #wdcd2016 #refugeechallenge proposal page for the design entry "A Hive for New Life" by Architect Esther Prawira :


    [​IMG]

    Marcus Busby
    I really love this design, especially for its scaling properties and the versatility of the modules to create different building types. I believe this is essential for creating spaces that facilitate functionality in the built environment making it easier for communities to prosper.

    There are also brilliant prospects for roof gardens and urban agriculture to be incorporated onto the buildings. The structural properties will be high due to multiple units supporing the upper storeys. This allows for increased densities.

    This idea shows very well how the hexagonal unit can be used to create clusters of buildings and also independent units, which combine and scale to make larger units. The design shows well how this occurs from bottom-up. I am excited by the fact that using these same principles for the Smart Garden City I have shown how this can be organised from the perspective of urban planning - for settlement-scale applications.

    I believe a combination of our proposals allows a reconciliation of the bottom-up, top-down planning paradox. A range of unique and specific structures at architectural scale fosters diversity in the architectural built form, giving rise to a genuine sense of place and identity, whilst the top-down planning ensures the optimality spatial function.

    The Smart Garden City includes areas of greenspace, which provide the opportunity to develop green infrastructure for ecosystem services - as a foundation for economic development, and increased environmental and social health. It also includes a design for a zero-carbon transport system. Together these bring many opprtunities for education and skills development for sustainable employment.

    I really hope we can continue to work together on this project, hopefully with support from UNHCR and IKEA Foundation, which can yield so many social, ecological and economic benefits for both refugees, the host nations around the world, and the natural environment.


    [​IMG]
    Esther Prawira

    This hive structures design is made to fit in with any programs, including the transformation into an urban agriculture elements, the most agricultural technique i recommend on my proposal is hydrophonic, in that way we can grow things inside the structure with minimal instruments. Since I consider the fulfillment of agricultural needs for foods and the human interaction are a part of the basic needs of the refugees.

    With this hive structures I hope it will become the refugees home, it give them identity in the city, it give them self esteem and overall a new hope

    I saw a same vission from The Smart Garden City design. The proposed design also shows us very clearly how's the most ideal place to live, healing the trauma and make it more organised. I saw that the Smart Garden City design is giving so many benefits to both the refugees and the locals. I believe that sustainable issue will no longer a problem if we can applying the Smart Garden City idea

    Since our idea supporting each other, It will be my pleasure if we can work together on this project. It will be also my pleasure if UHCR and IKEA willing to help us to try out this combined ideas to make a better environment not only for the refugees but also the locals.

    I believe by combining the idea we can make a reconciliation between the locals and the refugees because with the combined idea some good synergies will be made in so many aspects.


    • [​IMG]
      Marcus Busby


      Yes agreed wholeheartedly!

      There are also some exciting materials innovations which can be sponsored by IKEA foundation, such as the new wood-based/resin stabilised "Transparent Wood". This can be particularly useful for hydroponics, and indeed algae-powered building technology, which can work so well within your design.

      The Smart Garden City proposes to create some hemp plantations as part of the broader scale agriculture associated with the wholistic city concept. Hemp can be used to create over 2,500 different products. One of these is Hemp-fibre panels, as well as many other building and insulation materials. Hempfibre Panels are as strong as Carbon fibre, and stronger than glassfibre, but with the added benefit of using natural fibres, stabilised by resin. Carbon is sequestered, not created in creating this material.
      The panels for the Hive for Life Hexagonal units can be formed with these new materials, allowing a Cradle-Cradle non toxic product lifecycle. Perfect for circular economy.

      Hemp-fibre panels are also extremely lightweight - easy to transport and easy to assemble.. So as you say, the synergy of these principles can create new homes, sustainable and regenerative livlihood and a scalable transferable model.

      I too hope we can work with IKEA and UNHCR to develop this, because the possiblilities are immense.
      • [​IMG]
        Marcus Busby

        The fact that the Hive for New Life modules can be stacked, creating bespoke multiple-storey buildings can really help with reducing urban sprawl and organising temporary settlements. The units allow a great deal of flexibility, combined with ease-of-construction.

        By using less land for residential purposes allows land to be preserved for food growing and ecological restoration projects, in addition to this, the builings in your design also support urban agriculture, such as hydroponics, aquaponics, aeroponics, roof and wall gardening and so on. This is all vital in satisfying basic needs, and opens up further possiblities towards more advanced community needs satisfaction.

        Hive for New Life and Smart Garden City can answer many contemporary challenges, for both refugees and also for established settlements and resident communities facing issues with energy provision, housing, urban sprawl, land use, sanitation and access to ecosystem services, they can also address challenges associated with resilience to climate change.


      • [​IMG]
        Esther Prawira

        you absolutely right, I might not explain it more in the design description above, but my design purpose are same like you said above. the structure modules can stacked and organised to not only reducing urban sprawl but avoiding the urban sprawl. it can be stacked to increase the density and also maximise the use of an area to it fullest without compromising the feasibility to meet the basic needs of the refugees.

        about the material you mention above I will take it as a reference to consider. In my proposal I was using EPS Panels with a concrete coating as a main material to construct the modules, because It can be used as a structures, the core stand from polyurethane foam so it is very light, durable and quite resilient in the extreme condition, such earthquakes, extreme climate, etc. However, I still looking forward to the best possible material for this hive models. Thank u for the suggestion.

        Hopefully many people saw the same positive things from the hive structures design and the smart garden city design as we saw it.

        Regards,

        Esther
     
    Last edited: Jun 16, 2016
  17. Marcus Busby

    Marcus Busby Junior Member

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    Proposals for Settlement-Scale Applications

    This is an evolving description of how the GCoT model (Smart Garden City) can be applied in varying circumstances.

    Here it has been attempted to show how this model can function to assist in the amelioration of long-established refugee camps, for example Dadaab in Kenya, which has grown to nearly 330,000 residents and was first established in 1992. More information on Dadaab by clicking here.

    The following hyperlinks will take you specific posts in this forum thread. After clicking the hyperlink, it is best to wait a moment for the page to settle on the intended post. It may be necessary to make a note of the post #number and scroll up or down in the forum to find the post, all posts are numbered.

    The following hyperlinked posts aim to explain how the GCoT model may be considered, in a planned response to improving conditions for established refugee camp, or indeed for planning new ones. There are also a lot of related information, articles, videos and links on this forum thread.

    All comments, concerns, criticisms, observations, questions etc are welcomed. It is possible to comment here on this blog, and also on this forum. *It takes only two minutes to register to the forum in order to post a comment there, and the forum does not send junk mail or share email addresses with third parties.


    GCoT Smart Garden City

    What is it? see post #140

    Why this? see post #141

    How? see post #142 and #143

    Who? see post #144

    Where? also post #144


    Refugee Challenge Proposals:

    European Social Innovation Competition
    Summary presented for #diogochallenge, (Named in memory of Diogo Vasconcelos) - the European Social Innovation Competition, see post #115

    What Design Can Do #RefugeeChallenge
    Summary presented for #WDCD UNHCR and Ikea foundation What Design Can Do Competition, see post #139


    Smart Garden City Resources and Further Explainations

    GCoT Image Gallery: http://bit.ly/GCoTpics

    GCoT Literature review and v2.2 : http://bit.ly/LitRevGCoT

    Garden City of Today (GCoT) Version 2.0 booklet: http://bit.ly/GCoT20


    Social Media

    Twitter: www.twitter.com/fractalcities

    VIMEO:
    https://vimeo.com/109576684


    Comments discussion with an architect regarding Smart Garden City proposal : post #154


    Selected Diagrams


    [​IMG]
    [​IMG]
    [​IMG]

    [​IMG]


    GCoT Literature Review

    The GCoT Model – A Complex Systems Model For Spatio-temporal Settlement Design, Planning, Adaptation, Ecological Restoration, Economic Growth and Biourbanism; Employing Fractal Geometry, Recursion, Complexity, Emergence, Landscape Ecology, Biological Remediation, Agroecology and Central Place Theory


    Abstract
    Synthesis of related subjects into synergistic models for planning communication can facilitate multi-disciplinary strategy, for adaptation planning. This is relevant for planning and adapting complex systems such as cities and other human population centres. This paper combines three fields within an holistic model proposed for elucidating urban complexity, improving energy efficiency, and for adaptation planning. Idealised models for transport infrastructure, mixed-use spatial design and, green infrastructure for ecosystem services are combined forming an holistic model. This model is presented with reference to peer-reviewed articles and other publications. An implementation approach is proposed, showing its scalability, how diversity may be maintained in urban form and function, reconciled with unity in spatial planning, achieved through participatory urban planning approaches combined with established methods for ecological landscape restoration to achieve regenerative and sustainable development. A conceptualised, scaled and scalable spatial pattern is presented at city-scale, as an ecologically regenerative “smart” garden city model, and is referred to as the GCoT Model – acronym for Garden City of Today (Busby, 2014). This is presented for prospective use as an operational model and conceptual aid for strategic and adaptation planning, urban design and urban modeling.

    Keywords: #Sustainable #Development; #SustainableDevelopment Goals; #SDGs; #Complexity; #FractalGeometry; #CentralPlace; #Transit Orientated; #TOD; #Mixed-use; #Mobility; #Growth; #Emergence; #Walkable; #ActiveTransport; #Recursion; #Biophilic #Design; #Biourbanism; #P4P; #Unified settlement planning; #Scalable; #Urban #sprawl; #Mitigation; #ZeroCarbon; #Sequestration; #Flood resistance; #Resilience; #Agroecology; #Permaculture; Urban Heat Island; #UHI; Homogeneous; Heterogeneous; #Ecological; Meta-habitat; #Proximity; #Transport Orientated #Development; #Transport; Hierarchy; #Multi-modal; #Inter-modal; #MetabolicCity; #ResourceManagement; #WasteManagement; #Waste; #ClosedLoop; #CircularEconomy; #Homeostasis; Dynamic #Equilibrium; Urban #Analogy; #Correspondence; #Transition; Rapid Urbanisation; #Modeling; #EconomicDevelopment; #Retrofitting; #Amelioration; #Innovation; #CollaborativeDesign; #CoDesign; #Participatory Urban Planning; #ParticipatoryPlanning; #Bottom-up development; #Top-down planning; #holistic design; #GardenCities; #SmartCity; #SmartGardenCity.

    To share this Forum post, the following URL can be used :
    http://bit.ly/CityofOz
     
    Last edited: Jun 16, 2016
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  18. Marcus Busby

    Marcus Busby Junior Member

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    SOURCE: http://www.theguardian.com/global-d...n-dadaab-kakuma-jordan?CMP=Share_iOSApp_Other

    "Refugee camps are not the answer to a complex crisis"


    With Kenya’s announcement to close down two of its biggest refugee camps, it’s time to focus on the effective alternatives


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    The eastern sector of the sprawling Dadaab refugee camp, north-east of the Kenyan capital Nairobi. Photograph: Tony Karumba/AFP/Getty Images


    By Marilena Hatoupis and Sonia Ben Ali
    Co-founders of Urban Refugees

    Friday 10 June 2016 13.10 BST Last modified on Friday 10 June 2016 13.14 BST

    At last month’s World Humanitarian Summit, Kenya’s Deputy President William Ruto announced that the decision to close down its two largest refugee camps, Dadaab and Kakuma, was final.

    This is despite the fact the closures are in violation of international law and the UN has warned of the “devastating consequences” they will have. Over 600,000 residents will be displaced, putting them at immediate risk. Moreover the forced closure betrays the most basic refugee rights, and can only lead to countless human rights violations as refugees returning to their home countries face grave consequences.

    continued here : http://www.theguardian.com/global-d...n-dadaab-kakuma-jordan?CMP=Share_iOSApp_Other
     
  19. Marcus Busby

    Marcus Busby Junior Member

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    Source: https://www.irinnews.org/analysis/2016/06/15/has-kenya’s-brinkmanship-over-dadaab-worked

    Has Kenya’s brinkmanship over Dadaab worked?
    Kenya looks to UNHCR to help it solve its refugee dilemma

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    By Obi Anyadike
    • Twitter
    Editor-at-Large

    NAIROBI, 15 June 2016

    Kenya has called on the UN’s refugee agency, UNHCR, to help develop a plan for the repatriation of 315,000 Somalis from its sprawling Dadaab refugee complex – a move that might allow the extension of a controversial and unlikely November deadline for their return.

    UN High Commissioner for Refugees Filippo Grandi told a press conference in Nairobi on Monday that Kenyan President Uhuru Kenyatta had asked him: “give me a plan, and we’ll discuss it”.

    Grandi said the plan was still being worked on “with our partners” and would be presented to the foreign ministers of Kenya and Somalia at a meeting in Nairobi on 25 June. “We’ll talk about these plans and possible extensions,” he added. “We’ll take it step by step.”

    While the exact timing may be a matter for debate, Kenya has repeatedly said its decision in May to close Dadaab – which it regards as a “security threat” – is irreversible.

    Rashid Abdi, a senior analyst with the International Crisis Group, said Kenya was hostage to its own rhetoric. “It’s staked its reputation on closing the camp,” he told IRIN. It now, along with UNHCR, needs to find “a win-win solution for everybody”.

    A leaked report by a Kenyan government taskforce to establish the modalities for return – which was obtained by IRIN – said Kenya would implement a “fast-track” repatriation of refugees from June to November this year, at an estimated cost of $200 million.

    A question of time… and Money...

    continued here: https://www.irinnews.org/analysis/2016/06/15/has-kenya’s-brinkmanship-over-dadaab-worked
     
  20. Marcus Busby

    Marcus Busby Junior Member

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    How much does it cost to solve a global problem? This organization is offering $100m to change the world

    Could $100 million help to solve a critical global problem like climate change?
    Image: REUTERS/Pauline Askin
    Written by

    Rosamond Hutt, Senior Producer, Formative Content

    Friday 3 June 2016

    Written by
    Rosamond Hutt Senior Producer, Formative Content
    Published
    Friday 3 June 2016


    There are plenty of ways to make the world a better place – but what could you do if you had $100 million?

    In an effort to find smart solutions to the world’s most challenging problems, the MacArthur Foundation, a US-based philanthropic organization, has launched its new 100&Change competition.

    The contest, to be held every three years, is open to organizations in any field, anywhere in the world, with a plan to tackle a critical issue facing people, places, or even the entire planet. The one with the best proposal will be awarded $100 million.

    The Foundation said in a statement it was “placing a few big bets that truly significant progress” could be made on some of the world’s most pressing societal challenges like climate change and nuclear risk.

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    Image: Standard & Poor's
    “Solving society’s most pressing problems isn’t easy, but we believe it can be done,” said MacArthur Foundation President Julia Stasch. “Potential solutions may go unnoticed or under-resourced and are waiting to be brought to scale.”

    Each proposal will be reviewed by a panel of experts from a variety of fields. Cecilia Conrad, MacArthur’s managing director leading the competition, said the aim was to inspire more creative thinking around problem solving and to encourage other funders to back ideas.

    “We believe that 100&Change can have a ripple effect beyond what a single $100 million grant enables,” she said.

    “Setting audacious goals is inspiring. Clear evidence of impact can encourage other funders to invest in solvable problems more broadly, and applicants who do not receive the $100 million grant will still receive valuable feedback on and attention to their ideas.”
     

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