Re-Designing Refugee Communities, Settlement Design, Large Community Site Design

Discussion in 'The big picture' started by Marcus Busby, Sep 19, 2015.

  1. Marcus Busby

    Marcus Busby Junior Member

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    MORE THAN SHELTERS
    @morethsh
    Innovative Architektur und Social-Design Konzepte für humanitäre Zwecke. ------ Innovative architecture and social-design concepts for humanitarian needs.

    Hamburg/Berlin
    www.morethanshelters.org

    For those who haven't seen it yet, here is a small report about the opening of the Women and Kids DOMOs in Hamburg:
    http://www.ndr.de/fernsehen/sendung...gsorte-fuer-Fluechtlingsfrauen,hamj46296.html



    [​IMG]
    [​IMG]
    DOMO is a housing-system to help people in situations of humanitarian crisis fast to regain a dignified home. Due to DOMOs modular character it is flexibly adaptable: (to humanitarian Emergency aid) to individual and cultural needs of people as well as local climate and geographical circumstance.
    [​IMG]
    59,5 Million refugees worldwide – the highest number since World War II

    [​IMG]
    Today, the average lifespan of a refugee camp is close to 20 years
    [​IMG]
    The average length of stay of a refugee amounts up to 12 years
    [​IMG]
    Half of refugees today have lived in a camp for five years or more
    [​IMG]
    Upward Tendency
    Source: UNHCR Global Trends Report 2014

    These numbers represent people with individual histories and stories as wells as special skills and talents.

    Additionally they show: refugee camps are increasingly not only places for shelter, but (temporary) homes. Existing solutions are not designed for such long-term usage. Traditional tents are replaced every six to nine month and put pressure on the budget of aid agencies, without sustainably improving peoples living conditions.

    [​IMG]
    12345678
    Features
    Stable
    A sandblasted aluminum hollow profile construction offers stability despite its lightness. The added PVC flooring protects from water, dirt and insects to enter the tent.
    Comfortable
    A membranous outer shell makes for pleasant indoor climate and natural ventilation. Depending on the climate zone, DOMO is available in different materials.

    Protective
    Two-layered windows can be opened entirely and are high enough so outsiders cannot look in.

    Flexible
    The concept allows accommodations to individually adapt according to different climates and geographical specifications.

    Modular
    Depending on socio-cultural needs and size of family or groups, the inhabitants can connect multiple DOMOs with each other and use them for variable purposes, also for storage or community areas.

    Compatible
    DOMO can easily be transported, assembled quickly and complies with all requirements set by internationally established logistic supply chains in humanitarian aid.



    Longevity
    In contrast to common tents in humanitarian aid, DOMO does not only sustain six to ten month, but up to ten years. Single elements can easily be replaced and thus relieve the budget.



    source: http://www.morethanshelters.org/eng/domo/

    See also, Technical Specs: http://www.morethanshelters.org/eng/domo-tech-specs/



    We have to transform the most miserable places on this planet into sustainable and innovative eco-systems

    Vision and Mission
    MORE THAN SHELTERS aims to create a humane habitat for refugees and residents of informal settlements and encourage those involved to actively shape their own future. For a dignified life, even in situations of crisis. We have to stop looking at refugee camps as a short-term problem. We all should start viewing them as long-term opportunities for people who have lost everything. We have to transform the most miserable places on this planet into sustainable and innovative eco-systems. Sustainable development is possible if people can determine their own lives. Only then, a survival space turns into a living space, a place which takes into account individual needs, safety, security and privacy and which can be actively shaped. Thus, people affected turn into participants. Our objective is to create an individual home for people who have been forced in to an emergency situation and give them the opportunity to help themselves.

    • From human warehousing to individual self-development and human dignity.
    • From a psychology of dependency to personal autonomy.
    • From loss of dignity and hope to active engagement in the future.
    Only the people make the space, they are living in
    to a place,
    to a habitat,
    to their home.



    Daniel Kerber at Solve for X
    Re-engineering Refugee Camps and Slums
    In early 2014 we were invited to present MORE THAN SHELTERS and our alternative approach to refugee situations worldwide in the renowned Solve for X-Conference in San Francisco. Solve for X is a think tank project launched by Google to incite collaboration to solve global issues.
     
  2. Marcus Busby

    Marcus Busby Junior Member

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    Flexible DOMO Pools
    [​IMG]
    Primal accommodation facilities are hopelessly overcrowded in all German states and the necessity for creating shelter solutions is increasing. Due to the lack of housing, different spaces have been and still are transformed into accommodations. Mostly large areas such as industrial buildings, gymnasiums and exhibition halls are converted, also camps and container villages emerge.

    Already, refugees in Germany have been living in these emergency accommodations for two to twelve month, with a rising tendency. Social friction, an absence of privacy and now a decrease in outdoor temperature lead to problematic unacceptable conditions. Quick actions and immediate implementation of humane, socially functioning space improvements are essential. The goal of the project is to provide a freely usable DOMO pool for refugees. These mobile DOMO pools can be utilized as required and wherever the need for urgent spacial solutions is greatest. Combined with the principle of cooperation and the knowledge of how to use socially complex dynamics in a solution-oriented manner, a comparably small input can create major advancements.

    Hence, it is possible to react and act directly at the focal point and attain the greatest possible effectiveness. In the near future DOMO pools shall form in various places. Our first pilot project has started in Hamburg in August 2015. Based on this successful miniature pool, the number of freely usable DOMOs shall now grow organically. Our goal is to provide up to 100 DOMOs in these pools in Germany until the end of the year.

    Mission
    Protected space for women and children
    Hamburg exhibition halls
    This was our pilot project in Hamburg. From early August to late September 2015, approximately 1.200 refugees have found shelter in a hall in Hamburg’s exhibition halls. Although poor fences provide shielding, the space lacks privacy and protected rooms. Thus, we implemented two DOMOs on-site to be used as nursing rooms for women and a separated, secured space for children.



    Hamburg – Bergedorf
    Since September 2015, an old warehouse in Hamburg Bergedorf is functioning as an emergency shelter for up to 700 refugees, among them a lot of families and children.

    We could allocate two DOMOs from our DOMO – Pool, providing a sheltered and save room for a creative children’s program, realized by local volunteers. The fled children went through unimaginable experiences during their escape. Thus, the childcare in the two DOMOs allows the kids to process their trauma and to give them the opportunity of just being a carefree child again. The children’s program in Bergedorf provides daily entertainment, such as crafting, dancing, singing and movie nights.

    DOMOs as social rooms
    Hamburg-Schnackenburgallee
    Approximately 3.000 refugees are staying in the primal accommodation facility Hamburg-Schnackenburgallee. In order to provide housing for everybody, the space now consists of a container village and an additional camp – both basal, conflictual emergency solutions. Starting with four DOMOs, we want to create comprehensive spatial solutions and utilize the growing DOMO pool, combined with social design for the greatest possible impact. We are in close contact with operators and conduct needs assessments for the implementation.

    Hamburg Central Station
    Within the last months, the central train station in Hamburg has turned into a huge stopover and transit point for the refugees. Between 300 and 1.000 refugees are daily arriving the train station, on some days it is even more. The arriving refugees are exhausted, starved, tired, sick and in some cases even injured from the exertions of their escape.

    In close cooperation with the „Paritätischem Wohlfahrtsverband“ we were able to set up two DOMOs on the courtyard of the station. One DOMO is serving as a „mobile clothing store“, as the majority of the refugees are reaching Hamburg in sandals and light clothes, entirely unprepared to cold temperatures. Thus, in the clothing DOMO, they get equipped with shoes, jackets and blankets. The other DOMO serves as first aid and supplying station. Here the refugees are provided with soup, hot drinks, fruits and – most of all – supporting words and encouragement.

    Take part, support us with your donation to set up the DOMO pool!
    For better havens in Germany!
    Please donate!

    morethanshelters e. V.
    IBAN: DE35 4306 0967 1139 0999 00
    BIC: GENODEM1GLS GLS-Bank

    Donate via PayPal



    [​IMG]
    [​IMG] Contact:
    Isabelle Poncette
    Office Berlin

    Email: projects (•) morethanshelters.org
    Phone: +49 (0)30 / 956 249 29
     
  3. Marcus Busby

    Marcus Busby Junior Member

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  4. Marcus Busby

    Marcus Busby Junior Member

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    [​IMG]
    Fig. 1. Major pathways through which biodiversity may provide health and well-being benefits to humans.

    Ecosystem Services
    Volume 12, April 2015, Pages 1–15
    Exploring connections among nature, biodiversity, ecosystem services, and human health and well-being: Opportunities to enhance health and biodiversity conservation

    • a National Ocean Service, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Hollings Marine Laboratory, 331 Fort Johnson Road, Charleston, SC 29412, USA
    • b Cooperative Institute for Climate and Satellites, Earth System Science Interdisciplinary Center, University of Maryland and National Ocean Service, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 1305 East-West Highway, Rm 13614, Silver Spring, MD 20910, USA
    • c Coastal Services Center, National Ocean Service, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 2234 South Hobson Avenue, Charleston, SC 29405-2413, USA
    Received 3 September 2014, Revised 6 December 2014, Accepted 10 December 2014, Available online 8 January 2015
    Link to full paper:
    http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2212041614001648
     
  5. Marcus Busby

    Marcus Busby Junior Member

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    3.2. Human health and nature
    There is a large and growing body of literature that demonstrates that contact with nature (broadly defined in the introduction and including urban green space, parks, forests, etc.) can lead to measurable psychological and physiological health benefits, as well as numerous other positive effects (Table 1).
     
  6. Marcus Busby

    Marcus Busby Junior Member

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  7. Marcus Busby

    Marcus Busby Junior Member

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    Global resource networking: Kilian Kleinschmidt at TEDxHamburg
     
  8. Marcus Busby

    Marcus Busby Junior Member

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    Growing a (Refugee) Garden City of Today
    Video 24 Seconds


     
  9. Marcus Busby

    Marcus Busby Junior Member

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  10. Marcus Busby

    Marcus Busby Junior Member

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  11. 9anda1f

    9anda1f Administrator Staff Member

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    That Auroville (India) city concept is aesthetically exciting .... I wonder if the airfoil building designs are for channeling wind energy.
    The concept behind the city is very Permaculture-like also. I sure haven't found much on the design details.
    The design:
    [​IMG]

    The current state of Auroville (from Google Earth satellite imagery):
    [​IMG]
     
    Marcus Busby likes this.
  12. Marcus Busby

    Marcus Busby Junior Member

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    Hi Bill
    Yes Auroville is a very interesting project and a unique community. Search for "auroville planning department " and lots of info comes up.
    If it were possible I´d join tomorrow !
     
    Last edited: Mar 10, 2016
  13. Marcus Busby

    Marcus Busby Junior Member

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    Fundamentals of Permaculture

    Extract from:

    Permaculture as a Tool for Implementing
    the UN Decade of Education for Sustainable Development
    by Lee Frankel-Goldwater
    Web Link: http://permaculturenews.org/2012/10/18/permaculture-as-a-tool-for-implementing-the-un-decade-of-education-for-sustainable-development/


    Section I: Fundamentals of Permaculture – A Summary for Educators:


    In addition to the definition provided in the Introduction, the following concepts are at the core of Permaculture design as defined by some of the key founders and much of the Permaculture community. It is hoped that this concise discussion can provide a sufficient introduction to Permaculture design for environmental educators and serve as a sufficient point of comparison for the rest of the article:



    ➢Permaculture Ethics


    The three ethics are the backbone of Permaculture and are what all considerations in design are weighed against. They are often depicted as a triangle with each of the ethics being co-dependent on the others. While outside the scope of this writing, it is important to note that the Ethics were carefully considered in their creation and drew on traditional wisdom and contemporary knowledge for their selection (3):


    1)Earth Care – This is a notion of “enlightened self-interest”(4), that humans must care for the Earth, with all of its living systems, because of our dependence on them for survival. While favoring an anthropocentric approach, Permaculture considers human well-being to be inexorably tied to the diversity and resilience of the ecosystems in which we live.


    2)People Care Permaculture systems must care for people as well as the Earth. This does not call for a regression of society to a past state, but to incorporate smart design principles into the culture so as to meet the needs of people while utilizing resources renewably.


    3)Fair Shares – Each person is afforded their needs without compromising the other two ethics. This means that no fellow human, the Earth, its creatures, or its ecosystems should suffer unnecessarily for the sake of the others. It is a balancing principle, where excess is freed for use by other parts of the system or future generations.

    [​IMG]

    Illustration 1: Integration of the Permaculture


    Ethics, www.self-willed-land.org.uk




    ➢Permaculture Principles


    These are the guiding points when developing a Permaculture system. They are the application of the Ethics and guide the design process. Not every element in a Permaculture system needs to fulfill all of the Principles yet to violate one would have to be carefully considered to guarantee sustainability. There are various ways to list these Principles but one of the most widely recognized are the '12 Permaculture Design Principles' as defined by one of Permaculture's founders, David Holmgren in his Permaculture: Principles and Pathways to Sustainability(5):


    1)Observe and Interact Observe and be harmonious with nature so as to design systems that are sustainable and work with and not contrary to natural cycles.


    2)Catch and Store Energy – This includes Earthly and human generated energy including solar, wind, hydrological, labor, compost, photosynthetic, etc.. The aim is renewability.


    3)Obtain a Yield - Future needs cannot be met at the expense of present needs. It is the idea that “one cannot work on an empty stomach.” This is fundamental to sustainability.


    4)Apply Self-Regulation and Accept Feedback – In application both to a design and to systems as a whole, that sustainability is built on a pillar of cyclical feedback and regulation.


    5)Use and Value Renewable Resources and Services – Notes the difference between using resources renewably, such as sustainable timber, and passively, as a tree for shade.

    6)Produce No Waste – Waste is merely an unidentified resource. If an output cannot be reused by the system then it should avoid being created, such as exhaust from a car.

    7)Design from Patterns to Details If possible, avoid essentializing and micromanaging every individual function. Complex systems can evolve from simple ones which work.

    8)Integrate Rather than Segregate – Can be summarized as: “Each element performs many functions, each important function is supported by many elements”.(6) Provides resilience.

    9)Use Small and Slow Solutions – Systems should preform on the smallest practical scale and allow for energy to permeate the system. Examples are local economies and repairing tools.

    10) Use and Value Diversity The recognition that stability comes from diversity of form and function. Allow for evolved, dynamic system complexity to support the other Principles.

    11) Use Edges and Value the Marginal – It is when elements interact the the most interesting results occur, the outputs that become the inputs of another element, large or small.

    12) Use and Respond to Change CreativelyMake use of change in a deliberate and co-operative way, recognizing that certain events are out of ones control. Be flexible.


    [​IMG]

    [​IMG]

    Illustration 2: Principles and Ethics,

    SOURCE : http://permacultureprinciples.com/

    (and http://www.sociallandscapes.co.uk/about/permaculture/)
     
    Last edited: Mar 10, 2016
  14. Marcus Busby

    Marcus Busby Junior Member

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    ➢Zone and Sector Analysis

    Zone and Sector analysis is used in Permaculture to define the interactions between physical and energetic factors in a system. In a design, a center (such as the home) is often defined and decisions are made relative to this center. Once mapped and integrated, Zones and Sectors provide an intuitive sense of 'flow' within the system. These considerations are fundamental to the harmonious interaction of humans with the environment:

    Zones – are usually, roughly concentric rings beginning with Zone 1, being the closest to the home or center, and Zone 5 being the furthest away. A gradient is created between the most intensively managed areas and the most 'wild', also representing the the relative impact of the design on the nearby environment. An example is a kitchen garden that would be in Zone 1, and a forest preserve that would be in Zone 5. The size of the zones is often relative to the size of the site.

    Sectors – are the energies that flow in and out of a system in time and space. These include precipitation, solar path, and wind direction through the year, as well as water sources, unregulated external factors such as noise or pollution from nearby human activity, and other weather conditions. Knowledge of these factors are prerequisites for design.




    ➢Techniques of Permaculture Designers

    There are a wide range of methods used by Permaculture designers to implement and achieve their aims within a whole, interconnected system. These draw on local and traditional knowledge, modern ecological and engineering techniques, and real-time observation during project development. It is impossible (and unnecessary) to create an exhaustive list because new tools are incorporated and developed often as Permaculture seeks open-mindedness, flexibility, and the incorporation of any technique that fits within its principles(7). Some common examples are:

    Swales – a tool for encouraging water catchment, groundwater stores, and managing runoff.

    Guilds an agriculture tool of complementary, co-supporting plants such as the “three sisters” of Native American traditions.

    Water Catchment Systems – to make use of water from precipitation within the design.

    Forest Gardens – the use of stacked, perennial tree and shrubs to maximize space and yield while minimizing effort in the upkeep of a system.

    LETS Systems – an acronym for Local Exchange Trading System, this is a alternative to using national currency, noting that Permaculture is not only an agricultural tool.

    Keyhole Patterning – uses physical patterns in nature to model elements of the system, for example 'keyhole gardens' with the internal structure of a snowflake to maximize 'edge effect'.

    Local Building Materials – can utilize ancient mud building techniques and the reuse of discarded materials such as tires to create sustainable, high-comfort living structures.



    ➢Key Ideological Considerations


    Cultural Sensitivity – fundamental to Permaculture is an integration with existing, local culture. Spirituality, holistic health, art, traditional knowledge, systems ecology, and various philosophical traditions are openly integrated and considered in the system making it quite appropriate to the diversity of global culture.


    Economics and Development though markedly against globalization, Permaculture designers often appreciate the model that the World Bank uses when looking at sustainability and capital. This includes four types of capital: Economic, Human, Social, and Natural.(8) This takes into account material and non-material factors that can contribute to a sustainable society. That said, local economies are central to Permaculture thought and are considered are requirement for resilient community design.


    Appropriate Technology – appropriate, locally fabricated tools are central to the Permaculture design process. As implied by the Principles, using what is available is necessary for working with the local environment to achieve goals. This point is particularly significant for impoverished communities.


    Whole Systems Thinking and Integration while a particular technique (water catchment, mud building, etc.) can be commonly used by designers, the tool itself is not “Permaculture”; it is the integration of the technique into a whole system that makes it Permaculture.(9)




    ➢Local Participatory Design and Planning Methodology

    Participatory community design and education has become a hallmark of Permaculture and, as noted, is fundamental to its core philosophy. Designers have incorporated techniques from urban planning, landscape architecture and social science research. Some such tools are:

    Design Tools – formalized methods for design, development, and analysis:

    1)B.R.E.D.I.M. – used by industrial engineers and standing for Boundaries, Resources, Evaluation (and re-evaluation), Design, Implementation, and Maintenance. This standard, formulaic design technique is used to aid in producing maps and design documents of a professional nature with little technical background.

    2)Random Assembly, Flow Diagrams, Input/Output Analysis are a few of the many creative tools used by Permaculture designers and educators to illustrate the Principles and generate 'outside the box' thinking within a design project.



    Participatory Tools and Education Techniques – a variety are used but not limited to:

    1)PASE sheets – short for Plant, Animal, Structure, Energy surveys for community needs.

    2)Planning For Real – uses scale models, designed by Neighborhood Initiatives in the 1970's.

    3)Creative Spaces – a community participation toolkit from the Architecture Foundation.

    4)Workshop Models – that provide on-site, short-term education and the opportunity to train for and implement practical, needs based design projects.


    The aforementioned discussion is once again, very brief and could have been articulated in numerous ways. The main ideas presented here are however well-representative of the general philosophy of Permaculture, are well accepted by the Permaculture community, and should provide a sound basis for further discussion and comparison.


    References:


    3Ibid. Mollison, B. (2002)., p.11

    4Whitefield, P. (2000). Permaculture in a Nutshell. Hampshire, England: Permanent Publications., p.5

    5Holmgren, D. (2010). Permaculture : principles & pathways beyond sustainability. East Meon, Permanent Publications.

    6Holmgren, D. (2001). The Essence of Permaculture. Retrieved from www.spacountry.net.au/holmgren, Accessed: 2 July 2011

    7See Appendix I for further examples and resources.

    8Radej, B. (2006). Assessment of Structural Funds. Effectiveness on Sustainable Development - Pomurje Regional Case Study. Ljubljana

    9Bell, G. (2004). The Permaculture Way. Hampshire, UK: Permanent Publications., p.32
     
  15. Marcus Busby

    Marcus Busby Junior Member

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  16. Marcus Busby

    Marcus Busby Junior Member

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    please also see earlier response post #61 link here.

    The Smart Garden City model presented above is a conceptual (systems) model. I used 6-point geometry in this model for ease of making calculations and for presenting the model in a conceptual form. Using 6-point fractal geometry means for instance, the transport model is in its most efficient form - with the most direct routes.

    By using or presenting the model in conceptual form, means that principles derived from the model can inform decisions on the ground. Principles such as Transit orientated development, zoning of built and green spaces/green infrastructure for ecosystem services, multi-modal transport and distribution hubs, habitat/green bridges, metahabitats/populations, habitat hubs and corridors, phytoremediation, bioremediation, restoration ecology, restoration agriculture, stabilisation agriculture and so on... a idealised conceptual model is an easier way of presenting these concepts all together.

    The implementation model (see animation and phases, briefly described in GCoT v2.0 2014 pp 50-53) also follows recognised patterns of urban morphology, and urban sprawl such as 'ribbon,' and 'leap-frog,' however, in the presented model, these types of urban growth are mitigated and planned-for, as described by Frankhauser et al 2015 pp13-48 in Helbich et al 2015 - direct link to paper here). This is achieved by recognising urban growth and sprawl, looking at urban morphology (Observation) and then defining a process of managed sprawl or managed urban growth- ie modular and fractal, or by recursion.. with the hypothetical scenario of 'what if all the world were urbanised?' in mind. This results in a reinterpretation, or use of 'emergence theory.'

    The model may be employed conceptually, or directly. It depends on the design brief. The model is intended to be a conceptual aid for modelling, design and implementation.

    To be realized, it's form would follow extant landscape features, built and/or natural. I would recommend using the IMMDesign methodology mixed with McHarg Exclusion Method

    Fractal planforms can also be more flowing, in fact they can be completely random as we see in almost all cities (See the work of Professor Batty and also Prof Frankhauser in particular).

    Below is a link to an example of a similar, but more organic fractal planform.

    Here is a link to a similar but more naturalized fractal plan form:

    [​IMG]
    Image source : https://bentrubewriter.files.wordpress.com/2013/08/pentigreelsys3.jpg
     
    Last edited: Mar 16, 2016
  17. Marcus Busby

    Marcus Busby Junior Member

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    reposting from earlier post #10:

    Stabilisation Agriculture



    Loess Plateau Watershed Rehabilitation Project 1

    Results

    More than 2.5 million people in four of China’s poorest provinces – Shanxi, Shaanxi and Gansu, as well as the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region – were lifted out of poverty. Through the introduction of sustainable farming practices, farmers’ incomes doubled, employment diversified and the degraded environment was revitalized.

    • Incomes doubled: People in project households saw their incomes grow from about US$70 per year per person to about US$200 through agricultural productivity enhancement and diversification.
    • Natural resources were protected: Uncontrolled grazing, subsistence farming, fuel wood gathering and cultivation of crops on slopes had left huge areas of the Plateau devastated. The project encouraged natural regeneration of grasslands, tree and shrub cover on previously cultivated slope-lands. Replanting and bans on grazing allowed the perennial vegetation cover to increase from 17 to 34 percent.
    • Sedimentation of waterways was dramatically reduced: The flow of sediment from the Plateau into the Yellow River has been reduced by more than 100 million tons each year. Better sediment control has reduced the risks of flooding with a network of small dams helping store water for towns and for agriculture when rainfall is low.
    • Employment rates increased: More efficient crop production on terraces and the diversification of agriculture and livestock production have brought about new on-farm and off-farm employment. During the second project period, the employment rate increased from 70 percent to 87 percent. Opportunities for women to work have increased significantly.
    • Food supplies were secured: Before the project, frequent droughts caused crops cultivated on slopes to fail, sometimes requiring the government to provide emergency food aid. Terracing not only increased average yields, but also significantly lowered their variability. Agricultural production has changed from generating a narrow range of food and low-value grain commodities to high-value products. During the second project period, per capita grain output increased from 365 kg to 591 kg per year.
    • The project significantly contributed to the restructuring of the agricultural sector, the adjustment to a market-oriented economic environment and created conditions for sustainable soil and water conservation.
    • Even in the lifetime of the project, the ecological balance was restored in a vast area considered by many to be beyond help.
    • Terracing required the development of roads that facilitated the access of vehicles and farm equipment and labor to these areas. Sediment control and capture transformed previously unproductive land into valuable cropping areas, helped increase water storage for communities and agricultural use and reduced flood risk. Terraces have reduced labor inputs and allowed farmers to pursue new income-earning activities.
    Source: Link to article on World Bank website : http://www.worldbank.org/en/news/feature/2007/03/15/restoring-chinas-loess-plateau

    See "Hope in a Changing Climate" film:



    World Bank Loess Plateau Project Page:

    http://www.worldbank.org/projects/P003540/loess-plateau-watershed-rehabilitation-project?lang=en


    World Bank Loess Plateau Description and Economic Performance - Final Report (43 pages):

    http://documents.worldbank.org/cura...oess-plateau-watershed-rehabilitation-project
     
    Last edited: Mar 16, 2016
  18. Marcus Busby

    Marcus Busby Junior Member

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    Willem Ferwerda
    @WillemFerwerda

    Director Commonland, 4 returns from landscape restoration; exec. fellow business & ecosystems Rotterdam School of Management-Erasmus University, IUCN CEM

    "Over-grazing and desertification in the Syrian steppe are the root causes of war - The Ecologist"

    link to article click here
    http://www.theecologist.org/News/ne...syrian_steppe_are_the_root_causes_of_war.html

    Link to tweet click here
    https://twitter.com/WillemFerwerda/status/708597850083606528



    [​IMG]


    Article by Gianluca Serra
    5th June 2015

    Civil war in Syria is the result of the desertification of the ecologically fragile Syrian steppe, writes Gianluca Serra - a process that began in 1958 when the former Bedouin commons were opened up to unrestricted grazing. That led to a wider ecological, hydrological and agricultural collapse, and then to a 'rural intifada' of farmers and nomads no longer able to support themselves.

    A major role in this unfolding disaster was played by affluent urban investors who threw thousands of livestock into the steppe turning the grazing into a large-scale, totally unsustainable, industrial practice. Back in 2009, I dared to forecast that if the rampant desertification process gripping the Syrian steppe was not halted soon, it could eventually become a trigger for social turmoil and even for a civil war.

    I was being interviewed by the journalist and scholar Francesca de Chatel- and was feeling deeply disillusioned about Syrian government's failure to heed my advice that the steppe, which covers over half of the country's land mass, was in desperate need of recuperation.

    I had just spent a decade (four years of which serving a UN-FAO project aimed at rehabilitating the steppe) trying to advocate that livestock over-grazing of the steppe rangelands was the key cause of its ecological degradation.

    However, for the Syrian government's staff, it was far too easy to identify and blame prolonged droughts (a natural feature of this kind of semi-arid environment) or climate change (which was already becoming a popular buzzword in those years). These external causes served well as a way to escape from any responsibility - and to justify their inaction....

    continued here...
     
  19. Marcus Busby

    Marcus Busby Junior Member

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    link to web page: http://germany.ashoka.org/integration/en

    Innovation Conference on Integration
    [​IMG]
    Conference on the challenges of migration
    (Find the factsheet about the conference here.)

    I was fortunate to be able to attend this extremely well organised and well attended conference.

    Below are 5 photo extracts from the conference programme. To provide readers a very brief overview/intro

    There were 13 areas dedicated to 13 Social entrepreneurs working with integration who have set up and established successful models. Because the conference was very focussed it was only possible to listen to one of the presentations. I chose to listen to listen to the MoreThanShelters presentation hosted by Architect Daniel Kerber.


    The conference was organised by Ashoka details for partner organisations and sponsors found on the webiste link to the festival at the top of this post.

    Summary Intro
    [​IMG]

    Contents page (List of projects and Social Entrepreneurs)
    [​IMG]

    Preface by Ashoka Grermany
    [​IMG]


    Preface - Kilian Kleinschmidt
    [​IMG]

    Timetable/Programme of Events

    [​IMG]

    Programme of Events Continued..
    [​IMG]

    Social Entrepreneur, Architect Daniel Kerber - Director MoreThanShelters @morethsh
    [​IMG]
     
    Last edited: Mar 22, 2016
  20. Marcus Busby

    Marcus Busby Junior Member

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    http://www.morethanshelters.org/eng/about/how-we-work/
    MoreThanShelters - How We Work

    Reaching best possible solutions through focusing on people


    New Approaches
    A new eco-system of humanitarian innovation is evolving. Often led by non-traditional actors like designers or activists, new approaches are assessed, elaborated and implemented in humanitarian projects. Linked to concepts like human-centered or social design and/or social business they foster new role models based on triple bottom line approaches. With new concepts, methods and principles they try to answer the question:
    How can we transform the most miserable places on the planet into sustainable habitats?

    [​IMG]
    Three Spheres of Impact
    The three sections of design cannot be understood as separate areas but rather as different starting points. In fact, it is the connection between the three emphases that is the strength of MORE THAN SHELTERS’ approach. Most precaution is needed where the ecosystem, the social involvement and the final product interface.

    Methodology
    How we work
    MORE THAN SHELTERS works interdisciplinary and draws on diverse methods from multiple disciplines. The focus is thereby on the creation of appropriate solutions in the humanitarian context and the efficient planning of emergency interventions, based on steady long term development and improvement.
    In this regard the methodology of MORE THAN SHELTERS can be summarized under the term Integrated Design, meaning the contextual creation and planning of systems, structures and products. Integrated planning ensures participation of all stakeholders and affected parties and considers human habitats to be organic environments that need to be acted upon on all layers that define their reality.


    [​IMG]
    PRODUCT
    Design

    It is about finding the right balance between needed standardization which enables to react fast enough when a conflict or natural disaster emerges, and local appropriation that takes into account the socio-cultural and individual needs of the affected population. This is the background of DOMO as an innovative humanitarian product.

    [​IMG]
    SOCIAL
    Design

    Social design processes always put the users or beneficiaries in the center and rely on their knowledge and creativity. Following the logic that people themselves know best what they need and what is good for them, projects are conducted in co-creation processes. In workshops and sessions new solutions for the most pressing challenges are developed. All available expertise is used in diverse teams to connect and adapt the possibilities of the 21st century to local needs and knowledge.

    [​IMG]
    ECO-SYSTEM
    Design

    Human reality is multifaceted and can only work as a well-functioning system when all parts and layers successfully engage with each other. In order to not only treat consequences but causes of malfunctioning in humanitarian contexts, an emphasis on interlinkage and the understanding of the complex reality is indispensable. We call this complex reality ecosystem and the operating in it ecosystem design. Four factors are crucial for ecosystem design: ecology, social issues, politics and economy.
     
    Last edited: Mar 22, 2016
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