Rubble Trenches and Lime Mortars to Avoid Cement for Construction Purposes
The most important part of any home is its foundation. While roofs can be replaced and walls can be knocked over and raised once again, a bad foundation is often impossible to fix. In the modern day construction industry, almost every house sits on a cement slab foundation that is buried beneath the frost line underneath the walls of your home. While cement certainly has high compression strength, there are numerous ecological concerns regarding the cement and concrete industry.
Some estimates find that the cement industry is responsible for close to 3% of all carbon dioxide emissions. Furthermore, many scientists that believe that human impact on the planet has led us into the Anthropocene, a new geological era defined by human influence over the functioning of the planet as a whole, cite the fact that we humans have produced enough cement or concrete to cover the entirety of the earth´s surface with a thin layer of cement.
While cement might be necessary for a number of uses, is the traditional concrete slab the only way to build a solid and sturdy foundation for your home? Below we look at two different techniques that allow natural builders to reduce their dependence on concrete through using natural and more ecological materials.
The Rubble Trench
There are essentially two parts to any home foundation, the footing, and the stem wall. The footing is the part of the foundation underneath the soil line that goes at least as deep as the frost line for your region. This will ensure that your home is sitting on a solid foundation that won’t shift during the continuous freezing and thawing of the ground. The stem wall is the above ground part of the foundation that raises your walls off of the ground to avoid direct contact with moisture.
While concrete slabs have become the standard for footings in the conventional construction industry, the famous architect Frank Lloyd Wright popularized the use of the rubble trench foundation. The rubble trench foundation is simply a ditch dug down to below the frost line that is subsequently filled in with small rocks and large gravel. Once the trench is filled in up to the ground level, it is covered some sort of material to prevent the trench from filling in with dirt and other debris and the stem wall of the house is built directly on top of the gravel filled trench.
The rubble trench offers the same strength as a concrete footer while also offering drainage capacities. The trench should be dug slightly off contour to drain to light. This ensures that any water that enters the rubble trench will flow away from your home.
Step by Step Directions to Build a Rubble Trench for a Cob or Adobe Home
1.) Dig a trench 2 feet wide and down to the frost line. The extension office can tell you your frost line.
2.) Use a Bunyip water level or A-Frame level to slightly slope the trench towards daylight. You will have to open a trench connecting to the rubble trench that leads towards an escape.
3.) Fill the trench with 2 inches of gravel, then lay 4-inch perforated pipe and drain to fresh air. Fill gravel to within 2 to 3 inches of the top of the trench. Tamp every 6 inches.
4.) Finally, cover your completed rubble trench with landscape cloth or some other sort of fabric or impermeable material to prevent the trench from filling in.
Cement and concrete aren´t only used for footings but are also usually used for building the stem wall, either out of cement cinder blocks or as solid cement. If you are lucky enough to have a plentiful supply of rocks on your land, you can build your own rock stem wall (on top of your rubble trench) without the use of any cement. To tie the rocks together in your stem wall, you can use a simple lime mortar that can be made by following this simple recipe:
– 1 part lime putty (lime putty is made by mixing two parts hydrated lime and 1 part water in plastic buckets and letting to sit while covered for several weeks)
– 3 parts coarse sand
– ¼ part grog (ground up brick)
– Water as needed
This mortar will take a little bit longer to “set” than a traditional cement mortar, but there are numerous ecological advantages to using lime mortars. Firstly and most importantly, lime mortars will reabsorb the carbon dioxide released during manufacturing as it sets. Through a chemical process, the lime mortar will reabsorb carbon dioxide, essentially turning into limestone once again as it cures as a mortar holding your rock stem wall together. Whereas cement releases large amounts of CO2 into the atmosphere, lime will reabsorb the CO2 created during its manufacture to make it essentially carbon neutral.
Furthermore, lime mortars are biodegradable. Lime will convert back to its raw form—calcium carbonate, and can even be removed, re-wet and re-mixed. Cement, however, is a one-time material that usually ends up occupying space in landfills. Lime mortars are also compatible with earthen construction techniques. Lime has similar properties as earth and it will expand and contract at the same rate as earth. It also shares earth’s characteristics of being soft and breathable.
Lastly, there are several health benefits associated with choosing lime mortars over cement mortars. Lime can absorb and release moisture helping to prevent condensation, the main cause of fungi and molds in homes. Lime is highly alkaline and therefore naturally antibacterial, antifungal and antiseptic.