It’s something that becomes more and more unsettling for me the deeper I look into the issue. With every morning constitutional, with every quick run to the bathroom, the majority of industrialized humanity is carelessly waging war on the environment. In harsh but accurate terms, we are pillaging and polluting the planet in the most idiotic of ways. The way we’ve come—and much of the underdeveloped world still seems to be moving—to handle human feces and urine is almost immeasurably damaging to the world when it could be exceedingly good for it.
Generally, when I’ve written about this topic, I’ve done so light-heartedly, acknowledging the humorous side of poo and pee (and, I fear, distracting conscientious readers from the point), but that mood has sort of escaped me of late. As I find myself too often caught in the locks of modern life, visiting someone or somewhere, in an urban environment, at an eco-hotel, it’s left me with little option but to flush and add to this problem. Where else can you go in a city? Where else can you go when at a family member’s house? A friend’s? A restaurant? A business? A crowded campground!
Trust me, I want to laugh. I grew up in a household where fart jokes were richly appreciated and the agony of “holding it” rowdily laughed at. But, perhaps this is why the problem has persisted so. The end result of digestion, a simple fact of life, has become so taboo and untouchable that, despite a growing awareness of the environmental impact of the flush toilet system, change is excruciatingly slow if not largely ignored. But, as much as plastic is a problem, as much as chemical waste dumps, feedlots and GMO corn is an issue in need of immediate address, some would venture to say that humanure is doubly so.
The Reality of a Flush
For every flush of the toilet, people are sending away a minimum of 5 liters (and up to 25 liters) of fresh water, something that we are quickly recognizing as a hugely dwindling resource. The toilet accounts for over a quarter of the water usage in the average US household (and not far off in most other industrialized nations). Obviously, this means that over 25% of the fresh water we use in our homes has no greater purpose than to usher human excrement away. Every time we flush the toilet it is wasting water, be it grey or completely potable.
If it stopped there, it would still be horrible, but unfortunately, that initial flush and waste of fresh water is only a tiny fraction of the actual damage caused by what results: human waste. Before the flush, as we well know, human excrement and urine can be great replenishers of the soil, composted into rich, organic fertilizer. But, upon entering a flush toilet, these elements are usually met with chemicals like bleach and deodorants (no longer organic), and after that, they are transported into waste management systems that mix them with more chemicals, both from other waste sources and in an effort to clean what is now sewage.
Often, the sewage then goes into water treatment facilities, where humans now have to attempt to take the waste we’ve created (from what once were two invaluable commodities: soil fertility and fresh water) and get it to a point where we can safely release it into the sea for nature to finish the job. But, even in developed countries, this is proving ineffective. Seas and lakes have chemical build-ups, resistant bacteria, super viruses, and nitrogen overloads that cause severe environmental and human health problems. In other words, for all that fresh water we ruin flushing, we then contaminate an exponential amount on the other end of the flush.
No Sort-of Solution
With water shortages consistently coming to new all-time highs, with the endangerment of marine life ever increasing, with looming leaching of contaminants in just about every fresh water source we have, to continue flushing the toilet is nothing more than complete negligence on our part. We know what the problem is, we know how we are creating it, yet the most ubiquitously adopted solution—efficient flush toilets—are simply adding to the problem, albeit more slowly than before. Frankly, that’s anything but funny.
In blunt terms, the HET (high efficient toilet) is the equivalent to energy-efficient light bulbs. Sure, it’s better than what was there before, but it isn’t a solution to the problem, just as those light bulbs aren’t suddenly going to make our energy sources renewable and clean. Rather than reach for an actual, applicable solution, these technologies are often thought of too much as an answer to the greater issue, as opposed to an obvious continuation of the problem they are addressing. We still need better energy sources (and it’s great that those bulbs will use less of it), and we still need a clean way of dealing with human feces that (unlike HETs) doesn’t involve using fresh water to flush and/or contaminating more water at the other end.
Perhaps the greater problem with regards to wastewater from our toilets is that we absolutely have the answer, but only very few of us are electing to take advantage. We know very well that our feces can be composted to create fertile soil, enhancing life on earth for all its creatures and environs. We know that combining that feces with water instead creates a massive environmental disaster. But, cultural norms (and laws) suggest that dealing with excrement in the more positive way is disgusting, unthinkably so, and our only realistic choice is continue with the flush system, somehow thought of as a more sanitary situation. But, that has to change.
The Truth about Change
It seems every so often humanity begrudgingly accepts that what we’ve been doing is obviously unacceptable. My wife and I spend most our time in developing countries, most of which have huge liter problems, and we often remark hopefully how that changed in our respective countries of origin (England and the US) within our lifetime. To liter now in either of these countries would warrant all sorts of societal tisk-tisking, as well as legal fines. Such pollution seems a clear case of society learning to protect our environment, especially natural areas (but even concrete jungles look better without junk).
The point is that, when it comes to toilets, it’s time we start pushing hard for this cultural paradigm to change, every bit as hard as we push for renewable energy sources and the end of plastic bags. We have access to composting toilets, not just for rural spaces or campgrounds but ones that are built to function in urban settings. They require minimal maintenance or less overall effort than what flush toilets do (and even create less odor), eliminating the need for black water plumbing systems. Who in their right mind would want to use these systems and continue destroying the world?
It’s time to we begin demanding that our new and refurbished buildings, our own homes, come equipped the responsible way, not just with off-the-grid energy but with composting toilets (and well designed greywater systems for the rest of it). And, it’s definitely time to stop thinking about these solutions as fine for the country but unsuitable for the city. It’s just not true, and—like litter—we will eventually come to see flush toilets as absolutely unacceptable. Composting toilets are a real solution, a natural cycle with not just the power to stop pollution but also to provide a positive impact on the planet. As builders, designers, homeowners, and humans, it’s time we really start enlightening ourselves and other people.
Then, we can laugh at how stupid we once were to flush away so many resources, choosing to pollute the environment when nature has devised the perfect system for how to deal this part of the human—as with all animals—cycle productively.
(Of course, I am but a humble voice reiterating that of many admirable people. In a word, I’m trying to do my part on more than just a personal level but rather use whatever sway I have as a writer to bring awareness, present solutions and inspire action from those who already know. For an amazing, sometimes comical but statistical argument regarding our treatment of bodily functions, read The Humanure Handbook, a much more detailed, book-length account of what I’ve presented here.)